MDCAT Syllabus 2017 Biology Pattern and Learning Outcomes
1. INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY:
Content Branches of Biology Learning outcomes:
a) Define the following terms: Transgenic plants, Cloning, Pasteurization, Preventive measure, Vaccinization, Drug therapy
2. CELL BIOLOGY:
Content Cell structure Structure and Function of cellular organelles Cell division Learning outcomes:
a) Compare the structure of typical animal and plant cell
b) Compare and contrast the structure of Prokaryotic cell with Eukaryotic cells
c) Fluid mosaic model of cell membrane and transportation (diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active and passive transport), endocytosis and exocytosis.
d) Outline the structure and function of the following organelles: Nucleus, Endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, Mitochondria, Centrioles, Ribosomes
e) Describe Meiotic errors (Down’s syndrome, Klinefelter’s syndrome, Turner’s syndrome)
3. BIOLOGICAL MOLECULES:
Content Carbohydrate Proteins Lipids Nucleic acids Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) Ribonucleic acid (RNA) Enzymes Learning outcomes:
a) Discuss carbohydrates: Monosaccharides (Glucose), Oligosaccharides (Cane sugar, sucrose), Polysaccharides (Starches)
b) Describe Proteins: Amino acids, structure of proteins
c) Describe Lipids: waxes, Phospholipids, Terpenoids
d) Describe the structure along its back bone composition and function of DNA as hereditary material, Replication of DNA (Semi-conservative), Role of triplet codons, Transcription (making up of mRNA), Translation (protein synthesis: role of ribosomes, mRNA, tRNA)
e) Give the structure and types of RNA (mRNA, rRNA, tRNA)
f) What is enzyme and its role in reducing activation energy?
g) Define the following terms: Enzymes, Coenzyme, Co-factor, Prosthetic group, Apoenzyme and Holoenzyme
h) Explain the mode/mechanism of enzyme action
i) Describe the effects of temperature, pH, enzyme concentration and substrate concentration on the rate of enzyme catalysed reaction’
j) Explain the effects of reversible and irreversible, competitive and non-competitive inhibitors on the rate of enzyme activity#
Content Virus Bacteria Fungi Learning outcomes
a) Which are the viral diseases in humans?
b) Reteroviruses and Acquired Immunodeficiency diseases
c) Describe the Life cycle of Bacteriophage (in detail with its all steps) including: Lytic cycle Lysogenic cycle d) Describe the structure and types of bacteria
e) Discuss in detail: Gram +ve bacteria Gram –ve bacteria Nutrition in bacteria
f) What are the uses and misuses of antibiotics?
g) What are molds (fungi)? How they are useful and harmful to mankind, give examples.
h) Describe the Life cycle of fungus (Rhizopus).
5. KINGDOM ANIMALIA:
Content Kingdom Animalia (phyla) Learning outcomes:
a) Porifera (with respect to their capacity to regenerate)
b) Coelenterata (coral reefs as habitat for sea animals)
d) Ascheliminthes (Infection in humans) with examples
e) Arthropoda (Economic importance of Arthropods and harmful impacts on Man)
f) Define the following terms: Coelomata, Acoelomata, Pseudocoele, Radiata, Bilateria, Diploblastic and Triploblastic organization.
6. HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY:
a) Digestive System
b) Gas exchange and Transportation
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation
d) Nervous System
f) Support and Movement
g) Hormonal Control (Endocrine Glands)
h) Immunity Learning outcomes:
a) Digestive System: Anatomy of digestive system and specify the digestion in: – Oral cavity (role of saliva and enzymes) – Stomach (enzymes) – Small intestine – Large intestine
b) Gas exchange and Transportation: Anatomy of respiratory system (nostrils, trachea, lungs) Explain the term breathing Lymph, structure of heart, carriage of oxygen and carbon dioxide
c) Excretion and Osmoregulation: Describe the structure of kidney and its functions with respect to homeostasis What are Kidney problems and cures? – Kidney stones, lithotripsy, kidney transplant, dialysis, renal failure 29 What do you understand by the term Homeostasis?
d) Nervous System: What is Nervous system and its types? Explain CNS (Central Nervous System) including forebrain, mid brain, hind brain and spinal cord Explain PNS (Peripheral Nervous System) and its types (Autonomic and Sympathetic Nervous System) Neurons (Associative, motor and sensory neuron) Discuss the Nervous disorders (Parkinson’s disease, Epilepsy and Alzheimer’s disease) What do you understand by Biological clock and circadian Rhythms?
e) Reproduction: Explain the Reproductive system in male in detail Explain the Reproductive system in female / Menstrual cycle Explain: – Spermatogenesis – Oogenesis Discuss the following Diseases in detail which are sexually transmitted: – Gonorrhea, Syphilis, AIDS and how these diseases can be controlled (treatment is not required)
f) Support and Movement: Explain the role of Human skeleton and skeletal muscles in locomotion Explain the process of muscle contraction What is Muscle fatigue, Tetani, Cramps? Describe the structure and functions of involuntary, voluntary and cardiac muscles
g) Hormonal control (Endocrine glands): What are hormones? Describe Hypothalamus with its hormones. Describe Pituitary gland with hormones secreted from its Anterior, Median and Posterior lobe Describe adrenal gland with its hormones. What are Islets of langerhans? What are the hormones of alimentary canal (Gastrin, secretin)? The hormones of ovaries and testes h) Immunity: Immune system and define its components: – Antigen – Antibody (structure of antibody) – Lymphocytes (B and T cells) 30 What is cell mediated response and humoral immune response? Types of Immunity: – Active immunity – Passive immunity What do you mean by vaccination?
Content Photosynthesis and cellular respiration Learning outcomes
a) Photosynthetic pigments and their absorption spectrum
b) Light dependent stage
c) Light independent stage
d) Describe the respiration at cellular level including: Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain
Content DNA technology Learning outcomes
a) Explain Recombinant DNA Technology
b) Discuss Polymerase Chain Reaction (detailed procedure)
c) What do you understand by the following terms: Gene therapy Transgenic animals
Content Components of Ecosystem Biological succession Energy flow in ecosystem Impacts of Human activity on ecosystem Learning outcomes:
a) What is succession, give various stages of succession on land.
b) What is the significance of Human activity on ecosystem as population, deforestation, ozone depletion, Green house effect.
10. EVOLUTION AND GENETICS:
Content Darwin’s theory Lamarck’s theory Evidences of evolution Genetics Learning outcomes
a) Theory of Darwin and Lamarck, also discuss the merits and demerits
b) Evidences of evolution from paleontology
c) Sex determination and sex linkage in humans d) Define the following terms: Mutations, Epistasis, Gene, Allele, Multiple allele.