Home - MDCAT Syllabus 2017 Chemistry Portion learning Outcomes

MDCAT Syllabus 2017 Chemistry Portion learning Outcomes

MDCAT Syllabus 2017 Chemistry Portion learning Outcomes



In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Define relative atomic, isotopic, molecular and formula masses, based on the 12C scale.

b) Explain mole in terms of the Avogadro’s constant.

c) Apply mass spectrometric technique in determining the relative atomic mass of an element using the mass spectral data provided.

d) Calculate empirical and molecular formulae, using combustion data.

e) Understand stoichiometric calculations using mole concept involving.

i) Reacting masses

ii) Volume of gases


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Understate gaseous state with reference to:

i) Postulates of kinetic molecular theory

ii) Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior

iii) Gas laws: Boyle’s law, Charles law, Avogadro’s law and gas equation (PV=nRT) and calculations involving gas laws.

iv)Deviation of real gases from ideal behavior at low temperature and high pressure

v) Causes of deviation from ideal behaviour

vi)Conditions necessary for gasses to approach ideal behaviour

b) Discuss liquid state with reference to:  Evaporation, vapour pressure, boiling and hydrogen bonding in water

c) Explain the lattice structure of a crystalline solid with special emphasis on:

i) Giant ionic structure, as in sodium chloride.

ii) Simple molecular, as in iodine

iii) Giant molecular, as in graphite; diamond; silicon(IV) oxide

iv)Hydrogen-bonded, as in ice v) Metallic as in Cu and Fe.

d) Outline the importance of hydrogen bonding to the physical properties of substances, including NH3, H2O, C2H5OH and ice.

e) Suggest from quoted physical data the type of structure and bonding present in a substance


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Identify and describe the proton, neutron and electron in terms of their relative charges and relative masses

b) Discuss the behaviour of beams of protons, neutrons and electrons in electric fields

c) Calculate the distribution of mass and charges within an atom from the given data

d) Deduce the number of protons, neutrons and electrons present in both atoms and ions for a given proton and nucleon numbers/charge.

e) i) Describe the contribution of protons and neutrons to atomic nuclei in terms of proton number and nucleon number

ii) Distinguish between isotopes on the basis of different numbers of neutrons present

f) Describe the number and relative energies of the s, p and d orbitals for the principal quantum numbers 1, 2 and 3 and also the 4s and 4p orbitals

g) Describe the shapes of s and p orbitals

h) State the electronic configuration of atoms and ions given the proton number/charge

i) Explain:

i) Ionization energy

ii) The factors influencing the ionization energies of elements

iii) The trends in ionization energies across a Period and down a Group of the Periodic Table


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Characterise electrovalent (ionic) bond as in sodium chloride and Calcium oxide.

b) Use the ‘dot-and-cross’ diagrams to explain

i) Covalent bonding, as in hydrogen(H2); oxygen(O2); chlorine(Cl2); hydrogen chloride; carbon dioxide; methane and ethene

ii) Co-ordinate (dative covalent) bonding, as in the formation of the ammonium ion and in H3N +– -BF3.

c) Describe the shapes and bond angles in molecules by using the qualitative model of electron-pair repulsion theory up to 4 pairs of electron including bonded electron pair and lone pair around central atom.

d) Describe covalent bonding in terms of orbital overlap, giving σ and Π bonds

e) Explain the shape of, and bond angles in ethane, ethene and benzene molecules in terms of σ and Π bonds 10

f) Describe hydrogen bonding, using ammonia and water as simple examples of molecules containing N-H and O-H groups

g) Explain the terms bond energy, bond length and bond polarity and use them to compare the reactivities of covalent bonds

h) Describe intermolecular forces (Van der Waal’s forces), based on permanent and induced dipoles, as in CHCl3, Br2 and in liquid noble gases

i) Describe metallic bonding in terms of a lattice of positive ions surrounded by mobile electrons#

j) Describe, interpret and/or predict the effect of different types of bonding (ionic bonding; covalent bonding; hydrogen bonding; Van der Waal’s forces and metallic bonding) on the physical properties of substances

k) Deduce the type of bonding present in a substance from the given information


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Understand concept of energy changes during chemical reactions with examples of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

b) Explain and use the terms:

i) Enthalpy change of reaction and standard conditions, with particular reference to: Formation; combustion; hydration; solution; neutralization and atomisation

ii) Bond energy (ΔH positive, i.e. bond breaking)

iii) Lattice energy (ΔH negative, i.e. gaseous ions to solid lattice)

c) Find heat of reactions/neutralization from experimental results using mathematical relationship. ∆H=mc∆T d)

d)Explain, in qualitative terms, the effect of ionic charge and of ionic radius on the numerical magnitude of lattice energy

e) Apply Hess’s Law to construct simple energy cycles, and carry out calculations involving such cycles and relevant energy terms, with particular reference to:

i) Determining enthalpy changes that cannot be found by direct experiment, e.g. an enthalpy change of formation from enthalpy changes of combustion

ii) Average bond energies

iii)Born-Haber cycles (including ionisation energy and electron affinity)


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe and explain following concentration units of solutions

i) Percentage composition

ii) Molarity (M)

iii) Molality (m)

iv)Mole fraction

v) Parts of million (ppm)

b) Understand concept and applications of colligative properties such as:

i) Elevation of boiling point

ii) Depression of freezing point

iii) Osmotic pressure


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Explain the industrial processes of the electrolysis of brine, using a diaphragm cell

b) Describe and explain redox processes in terms of electron transfer and/or of changes in oxidation number

c) Define the terms:  Standard electrode (redox) potential and Standard cell potential

d) Describe the standard hydrogen electrode as reference electrode

e) Describe methods used to measure the standard electrode potentials of metals or non-metals in contact with their ions in aqueous solution

f) Calculate a standard cell potential by combining two standard electrode potentials

g) Use standard cell potentials to:

i) Explain/deduce the direction of electron flow in the external circuit.

ii) Predict the feasibility of a reaction

h) Construct redox equations using the relevant half-equations

i) State the possible advantages of developing the H2/O2 fuel cell

j) Predict and to identify the substance liberated during electrolysis from the state of electrolyte (molten or aqueous), position in the redox series (electrode potential) and concentration


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Explain, in terms of rates of the forward and reverse reactions, what is meant by a reversible reaction and dynamic equilibrium

b) State Le Chatelier’s Principle and apply it to deduce qualitatively the effects of changes in temperature, concentration or pressure, on a system at equilibrium

c) Deduce whether changes in concentration, pressure or temperature or the presence of a catalyst affect the value of the equilibrium constant for a reaction

d) Deduce expressions for equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations, Kc, and partial pressures, Kp

e) Calculate the values of equilibrium constants in terms of concentrations or partial pressures from appropriate data

f) Calculate the quantities present at equilibrium, given appropriate data

g) Describe and explain the conditions used in the Haber process.

h) Understand and use the Bronsted-Lowry theory of acids and bases

i) Explain qualitatively the differences in behaviour between strong and weak acids and bases and the pH values of their aqueous solutions in terms of the extent of dissociation

j) Explain the terms pH; Ka; pKa; Kw and use them in calculations

k) Calculate [H+ (aq)] and pH values for strong and weak acids and strong bases

l) Explain how buffer solutions control pH

m) Calculate the pH of buffer solutions from the given appropriate data

n) Show understanding of, and use, the concept of solubility product, Ksp

o) Calculate Ksp from concentrations and vice versa

p) Show understanding of the common ion effect


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Explain and use the terms: rate of reaction; activation energy; catalysis; rate equation; order of reaction; rate constant; half-life of a reaction; rate-determining step

b) Explain qualitatively, in terms of collisions, the effect of concentration changes on the rate of a reaction

c) Explain that, in the presence of a catalyst, a reaction has a different mechanism, i.e. one of lower activation energy

d) Describe enzymes as biological catalysts (proteins) which may have specific activity

e) Construct and use rate equations of the form Rate = k[A]m[B]n with special emphasis on:

i) Deducing the order of a reaction by the initial rates method

ii) Justifying, for zero- and first-order reactions, the order of reaction from concentration-time graphs

iii)Verifying that a suggested reaction mechanism is consistent with the observed kinetics

iv)Predicting the order that would result from a given reaction mechanism (and vice versa)

v) Calculating an initial rate using concentration data

f) Show understanding that the half-life of a first-order reaction is independent of initial concentration and use the half-life to calculate order of reaction.

g) Calculate the rate constant from the given data

h) Name a suitable method for studying the rate of a reaction, from given information



In this topic, candidate should be able to: Discuss the variation in the physical properties of elements belonging to period 2 and 3 and to describe and explain the periodicity in the following physical properties of elements.

a) Atomic radius

b) Ionic radius

c) Melting point

d) Boiling point

e) Electrical conductivity

f) Ionization energy


In this topic, candidate should be able to: Describe and explain the variation in the properties of group II, IV and VII elements from top to bottom with special emphasis on:

a) Reactions of group-II elements with oxygen and water

b) Characteristics of oxides of carbon and silicon

c) Properties of halogens and uses of chlorine in water purification and as bleaching agent

d) Uses of Nobel gases (group VIII)


In this topic, candidate should be able to: Discuss the chemistry of transition elements of 3-d series with special emphasis on:

a) Electronic configuration

b) Variable oxidation states

c) Use as a catalyst

d) Formation of complexes

e) Colour of transition metal complexes


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe the inertness of Nitrogen

b) Manufacture of Ammonia by Haber process

c) Discuss the preparation of Nitric acid and nitrogenous fertilizers

d) Describe the presence of Suphur dioxide in the atmosphere which causes acid rain #

e) Describe the manufacture of Sulphuric acid by contact method



In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Classify the organic compounds

b) Explain the types of bond fission, homolytic and heterolytic

c) Discuss the types of organic reactions; Polar and free radical

d) Discuss the types of reagents; nucleophile, electrophile and free radicals

e) Explain isomerism; structural and cis-trans

f) Describe and explain condensed structural formula, displayed and skeletal formula

g) Discuss nomenclature of organic compounds with reference to IUPAC names of Alkanes, Alkenes, Alcohols and Acids


In this topic, candidate should be able to: Describe the chemistry of Alkanes with emphasis on

a) Combustion

b) Free radical substitution including mechanism Discuss the chemistry of Alkenes with emphasis on

a) Preparation of alkenes by elimination reactions

i) Dehydration of alcohols

ii) Dehydrohalogenation of Alkyl halide

b) Reaction of Alkenes such as

i) Catalytic hydrogenation

ii) Halogenation (Br2 addition to be used as a test of an alkene)

iii) Hydration of alkenes iv)Reaction with HBr with special reference to Markownikoff’s rule

v) Oxidation of alkenes using Bayer’s reagent (cold alkaline KMnO4) and using hot concentrated acidic KMnO4 for cleavage of double bond

vi)Polymerization of ethene Discuss chemistry of Benzene with examples

a) Structure of benzene showing the delocalized Π-orbital which causes stability of benzene

b) Electrolphillic substitution reactions of benzene

i) Nitration including mechanism

ii) Halogenation

iii) Friedel Craft’s reaction


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Discuss importance of halogenoalkanes in everyday life with special use of CFCs, halothanes, CCl4, CHCl3 and Teflon

b) Reaction of alkyl halides such as: SN-reactions, (Reactions of alcohols with aqueous KOH, KCN in alcohol and with aqueous NH3) Elimination reaction with alcoholic KOH to give alkenes.


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

Discus Alcohols with reference to

a) Classification of alcohols into primary, secondary and tertiary

b) Preparation of ethanol by fermentation process

c) Reaction of alcohol with

i) K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4

ii) PCl5

iii) Na-metal

iv)Alkaline aqueous Iodine

v) Esterification

vi)Dehydration Phenols

a) Discuss reactions of phenol with:

i) Bromine ii) HNO3

b) Explain the relative acidity of water, ethanol and phenol


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe the structure of aldehyde and ketones

b) Discuss preparation of aldehydes and ketones by oxidation of alcohols

c) Discuss following reactions of aldehydes and ketones

i) Common to both  2,4-DNPH  HCN

ii) Reactions in which Aldehydes differs from ketones  Oxidation with K2Cr2O7 + H2SO4, Tollen’s reagent and Fehling solution  Reduction with sodium boron hydride

iii)Reaction which show presence of CH3CO group in aldehydes and ketones  Triiodomethane test (Iodo form test) using alkaline aqueous iodine.


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Show preparation of ethanoic acid by oxidation of ethanol or by the hydrolysis of CH3CN

b) Discuss the reactions of ethanoic acid with emphasis on: i) Salt formation ii) Esterification iii)Acid chloride formation iv)Amide formation

c) Hydrolysis of amide in basic and acidic medium

d) Describe the strength of organic acids relative to chloro substituted acids


In this topic, candidate should be able to:

a) Describe the general structure of α-amino acids found in proteins

b) Classify the amino acids on the basis of nature of R-group

c) Describe what is meant by essential amino acids d) Understand peptide bond formation and hydrolysis of polypeptides/protein


In this topic, candidate should be able to describe and explain

a) Addition polymers such as polyethene, polypropene, polystyrene and PVC.

b) Condensation polymers such as polyesters, nylon

c) Structure of proteins

d) Chemistry of carbohydrates

e) Chemistry of lipids

f) Enzymes

g) Structure and function of nucleic acid (DNA & RNA)


In this topic, candidate should be able to

a) Understand causes of water pollution

b) Discuss disposal of solid wastes

c) Understand chemistry and causes of

i) Smog

ii) Acid rain

iii) Ozone layer